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Home   »  Resource  »   Abbreviations

Routes of drug administration

Route Abbreviation Description
Intracerebroventricular i.c.v. Into the ventricles of the brain
Intra-arterial i.a. Into the lumen of an artery
Intracerebral i.c. Into the brain
Intradermal i.d. Into the dermal layer of the skin
Intramuscular i.m. Into a skeletal muscle
Intragastric i.g. Into the stomach
Intraperitoneal i.p. Into the peritoneal cavity
Intrathecal i.t. Into the spinal canal
Intravenous i.v. Into a vein
Oral p.o. By mouth
Subcutaneous s.c. Under the skin
Topical Onto the surface, such as the skin or the eye
Systemic In the periphery (not in the CNS)

SI prefixes

Symbol Prefix Factor
T tera 1012
G giga 109
M mega 106
k kilo 103
μ micro 10-6
n nano 10-9
p pico 10-12

Greek letters (lower case)

α alpha γ gamma ο omicron σ sigma
β beta ι iota ω omega τ tau
χ chi κ kappa φ phi θ theta
δ delta λ lambda π pi υ upsilon
ε epsilon μ mu ψ psi ξ xi
η eta ν nu ρ rho ζ zeta


Abbreviation Description
Ac acetyl, CH3CO
acac acetylacetonate, CH3COCHCOCH3
bpy 2,2'-dipyridine, or bipyridine
Bu butyl (n-,i-,s-,t- : normal,iso,secondary,tertiary)
Bz benzyl, C6H5CH2
cod cycloocta-1,5,-diene, C8H12
cot cyclooctatetraene, C8H8
Cp cyclopentadienyl, C5H5
Cp* pentamethylcyclopentadienyl
Cy cyclohexyl, C6H11
dbm dibenzylmethyl, C6H5COCHCOC6H5
dme dimethoxyethane, CH3OCH2CH2OCH3
dmf N,N'-dimethylformamide, HCON(CH3)2
dmpe 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane, (CH3)2PCH2CH2P(CH3)2
dmpm 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)methane, (CH3)2PCH2P(CH3)2
dmso dimethyl sulfoxide, (CH3)2SO
edt ethane-1,2-dithiolate, SCH2CH2S
Et2dbm (see dbm) C6H4(C2H5)COCHCOC6H4(C2H5)
en ethylenediamine, H2NCH2CH2NH2
Et ethyl, C2H5
hmpa hexamethylphosphoric triamide, OP(N(CH3)2)3
Me methyl, CH3
MePh toluene
Mes mesityl, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl
OAc acetate, CH3CO2
OCH2-t-Bu neopentoxide
O2CPh benzoate
OR alkoxides, e.g., OMe, O-t-Bu
ox oxalate, C2O4
Ph phenyl, C6H5
phth phthalate, H2phth = phthalic acid, C6H4(COOH)2
pic picolinate, Hpic = picolinic acid, C5H4NCOOH
Pr propyl (n- or i- : normal or iso)
py pyridine, C5H5N
pz Hpz = pyrazole, C3H4N2
ROH alcohols, e.g., MeOH, t-BuOH
sal salicylaldehyde, C6H4(OH)(CHO)
thf tetrahydrofuran, C4H8O
tol tolyl, CH3C6H4


Abbreviation Description
Abl V-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1
ALK anaplastic lymphoma kinase
ATM Ataxia telangiectasia mutated
B-Raf B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (B-RAF), also known as V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
Bcl-2 B-cell lymphoma 2
bcr breakpoint cluster region
Caspase cysteine-aspartic proteases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases
CCR5 co-receptors chemokine receptor 5
CDK Cyclin-dependent kinase
CFTR potentiator Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
CTSK Cathepsin K, abbreviated CTSK
c-Kit CD117, also called KIT or C-kit receptor
c-Met mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor
DNA-PK DNA-dependent protein kinase
DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4
EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor
Factor Xa also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as prothrombinase
FGFR Fibroblast growth factor receptor
FLT-3 fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3
FTS farnesyl thiosalicylic
GSK-3 Glycogen synthase kinase 3
HER2 Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2
Hedgehog an intercellular signaling molecule called Hedgehog (Hh)
HDAC Histone deacetylase
HIF Hypoxia-inducible factor
HSP-70 heat-shock protein-70
HSP-90 heat-shock protein-90
IGF-1R Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
JAK Janus kinase
JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinases
Ksp Kinesin spindle protein
MAPK Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase
mGlu2/3 receptors metabotropic glutamate receptors
mTOR Mammalian target of rapamycin
NF-kB Nuclear factor κ B
p38 MAPK p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase
p53 protein 53 or tumor protein 53
PARP Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
PDGFR platelet-derived growth factor receptor
PDK-1 phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1
Rho ρ factor
PI3K Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases
PKC protein kinase C
PLK Polo-like kinase
Ras renin-angiotensin system
RNA Polymerase I RNAP or RNApol
S1PR1 sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1,also known as S1P1 or EDG1 (endothelial differentiation gene 1)
sPLA2 Secreted phospholipases A2
Src Rous sarcoma oncogene cellular homolog
Stat Signal Transducers and Activator of Transcription
Survivin also called baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 or BIRC5
TGF-beta Transforming growth factor
TNF-alpha Tumor necrosis factors
VEGFR-PDGFR Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor -platelet derived growth factor receptor
Wee1 Small cell protein, a mitotic inhibitor kinase
Wnt a combination of Wg (wingless) and Int

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